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A HELB loan is an investment that guarantees you a brighter future. Sultañ Kepha Weldon, profile picture. Sultañ Kepha Weldon. leadership develops daily not in a day >>Becoming a leader is a lot like investing successfully in the stock market. If your hope is to make fortune in. Kepha Partners | Kepha Partners is a venture capital investment firm that focuses on investments in companies operating in the software and technology. ELIZABETH PEYTON JONES SMOOTHIE PLACES

Entrepreneurship and small firms 5th Ed. New York: McGraw Hill. Drucker, P. The discipline of innovation. Harvard business review, 80 8 , Fiet, J. The systematic search for entrepreneurial discoveries. Capacity of non-governmental providers in delivery of health care in Kenya.

IFC World Bank Group. Kimalu, P. Debt relief and health care in Kenya. Maarse, H. The privatization of health care in Europe: An eight-country analysis. Journal of Health Politics, 31 5 Owino, G. Shane, S. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of management review, 25 1 , Stenton, A. A firm may invest abroad so as to produce more efficiently due to existence of cheaper factors of production.

It is the price paid in the home currency to purchase a certain quantity of funds in the currency of another country. It is therefore the link between different national currencies that makes international price and cost comparisons possible. If the rate is quoted for current foreign currency transactions, it is called the spot rate.

The spot rate applies to interbank transactions for delivery within two business days or immediate delivery for over-the-counter transactions that usually involve non bank customers. If the rate is quoted for delivery of foreign currency in the future, it is called the forward rate. This is a contractual rate between the foreign exchange trader and the trader's client.

The spread in the spot market is the difference between the bid buy and offer sell rates quoted by the foreign exchange trader. The forward spread is the difference between the spot and forward exchange rates. The direct quote is the number of units of the domestic currency for one unit of the foreign currency. The indirect quote is the number of units of the foreign currency for one unit of the domestic currency.

The cross rate is an exchange rate computed from two other exchange rates. The demand for foreign currency arises from the traders who have to make up payments for imported goods. The supply arises from those who have exported goods and services abroad. This depends largely on how much foreigners are willing to buy goods and services from a particular country. The value of the currency of the exporting country will therefore appreciate.

The opposite is the case if a country imports more goods than exports. Political Stability Unsuitable political climate will make the citizens lose confidence in their currency. They would therefore wish to invest or just buy the currency of the other countries they deem to be stable. In so doing, the demand for currency of more political stable countries will appreciate as compared to those of politically unstable countries.

Inflation rate differential purchasing power parity theorem Parity between the purchasing powers of two currencies establishes the rate of exchange between the two currencies. When inflation rate differential between two countries changes, the exchange rate also adjusts to correspond to the relative purchasing powers of the currencies.

Interest Rate Parity International Fisher Effect This theory states that differences in interest rate in different market can cause a flow of funds from markets with low interest rate to markets with high interest rates. Required: Compute the percentage change in direct quote and the new exchange rate. Balance of Payment The term balance of payment refers to a system of government accounts that catalogues the flow of economic transactions between the residents of one country and the residents of other countries.

It is therefore the fund flow statement. Continuous deficit in the balance of payments is expected to depress the value of a currency because such deficit would increase the supply of that currency relative to its demand. Government Policies A national government may through its Central Bank intervene in the foreign exchange market, buying and selling its currency as it sees fit to support its currency relative to others.

In order to promote cheap export, a country may maintain a policy of undervaluing its currency. A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.

A fixed exchange rate is usually used to stabilize the value of a currency against the currency it is pegged to. This makes trade and investments between the two currency areas easier and more predictable, and is especially useful for small economies in which external trade forms a large part of their GDP. It can also be used as a means to control inflation. However, as the reference value rises and falls, so does the currency pegged to it.

These rates of exchange are fixed by the Central Bank through the process of pegging the currency concerned e. Advantages of Using Fixed Exchange Rates i. It stabilizes the export proceeds and therefore it may stimulate exports for the period in which it is fixed. Foreign investors gauge the return on their investments in local currency vis-a- vis their own currencies.

A fixed exchange rate will assure these investors of a stable return on their investment which may induce foreign investors, thus increasing the inflow of foreign exchange to the country. It enables the government to meet its development plans whose budgets are set in local currencies but may be financed by foreign loans and aid. It may keep inflation under control because the prices of imported goods will remain stable as long as the exchange rate is fixed.

This is particularly true for imported inflation Inflation due to an increase in the price of imports. As the price of imports increase, prices of domestic goods using imports as raw materials also increase, causing an increase in the general prices of all goods and services.

Imported inflation may be caused by foreign price increases or depreciation of a country's exchange rate. Long term investment plans can be worked out with substantial accuracy and may minimize budget deficits with their negative effects. The greater certainty should help encourage investment. If they do, then unemployment and balance of payments problems are certain to result as the economy becomes uncompetitive. If there is a deficit then the currency falls making you competitive again.

However, with a fixed rate, the problem would have to be solved by a reduction in the level of aggregate demand. As demand drops people consume less imports and also the price level falls making you more competitive. Interest rates and other policies may be set for the value of the exchange rate rather than the more important macro objectives of inflation and unemployment. What this means is that some countries will have low inflation and be very competitive and others will have high inflation and not be very competitive.

The uncompetitive countries will be under severe pressure continually and may, ultimately, have to devalue. Speculators will know this and thus creates further pressure on that currency and, in turn, government. A currency that uses a floating exchange rate is known as a floating currency.

A floating currency is contrasted with a fixed currency. When the rate of exchange of a currency is floating, it is left to move in response to different forces especially the balance of payments. It is left to be determined by the forces of demand and supply of foreign currencies of a given currency. This rate may discourage investment by foreign investors as they are uncertain about the return to be earned on investment made under floating rates of exchange. It may also discourage export trade and may increase inflation rates.

For example, if a country has a balance of payments deficit then the currency should depreciate. This is because imports will be greater than exports meaning the supply of sterling on the foreign exchanges will be increasing as importers sell pounds to pay for the imports. This will drive the value of the pound down. The effect of the depreciation should be to make your exports cheaper and imports more expensive, thus increasing demand for your goods abroad and reducing demand for foreign goods in your own country, therefore dealing with the balance of payments problem.

Conversely, a balance of payments surplus should be eliminated by an appreciation of the currency. However, with a fixed rate, curing a deficit could involve a general deflationary policy resulting in unpleasant consequences for the whole economy such as unemployment. The floating rate allows governments freedom to pursue their own internal policy objectives such as growth and full employment without external constraints.

The fact that, with a floating rate, such changes are automatic should remove the element of crisis from international relations. A fixed exchange rate would have caused major problems at this time as some countries would be uncompetitive given their inflation rate.

The floating rate allows a country to re-adjust more flexibly to external shocks. These reserves have an opportunity cost. Sellers may be unsure of how much money they will receive when they sell abroad or what their price actually is abroad. Of course the rate changing will affect price and thus sales.

In a similar way importers never know how much it is going to cost them to import a given amount of foreign goods. This uncertainty can be reduced by hedging the foreign exchange risk on the forward market. The presence of an inflation target should help overcome this. Much depends on the price elasticity of demand for imports and exports. The Marshall-Lerner condition says that a depreciation in the exchange rate will help improve the balance of payments if the sum of the price elasticities for imports and exports is greater than one.

Apart from not punishing inflationary economies, which, in itself, encourages inflation, the float can cause inflation by allowing import prices to rise as the exchange rate falls. This is, undoubtedly, the case for countries such as UK where we are dependent on imports of food and raw materials. This type of exposure arises from an obligation to either accept or deliver foreign currency at a future date. The most important transactions leading to transaction exposure are accounts receivable and accounts payables denominated in foreign currency.

Translation Exposure Translation exposure defines exchange rate risk in terms of the impact of exchange rate movement on the financial statement of the firm. When a business is organized as several separate corporations, then financial statements must be filed on a consolidated basis so as to give shareholders concise and complete information as to the financial position and the operating performance of the firm as a whole.

When subsidiary operate in a foreign country then major complications occur in consolidation process. This problem arises from the fact that financial statements of the foreign subsidiary are usually in a currency which is different form that of the parent company.

The foreign currency must be converted into the home currency before accounts can be consolidated. Translation exposure therefore is the extent to which multinational firms consolidated financial statements are affected by the need to convert its foreign subsidiary accounts to the home currency.

As the value of the exchange rate fluctuates, so would be the value of the foreign subsidiary. Economic Exposure Economic exposure defines exchange rate risk as the total impact on all the cash flow of the firm both contractual and non-contractual It is broader than the other types of exposure and may be considered to be the overall impact of the foreign exchange fluctuations on the shareholders wealth.

It affects both the companies that enter into foreign currency transactions and those that do not. These include: Undertaking transactions denominated in home currency only. Entering into transactions denominated in foreign currency which is considered to be stable. The use of leads or lags. Leads are advance payments while lags are delayed payments. Contractual Techniques Contractual techniques include forward exchange rates, money market hedge currency options, currency futures and swaps.

These techniques are explained below: Forward Exchange Contract A forward exchange contract is an immediate, firm and binding contract between the bank and its customer for the purchase or sale of a specified quantity of a stated foreign currency at a rate of exchange fixed when the contract is made but requiring performance at a specified future date.

A forward exchange contract can either be fixed or option. A fixed forward exchange contract requires performance to take place on a specified future date. While an option forward exchange contract requires performance to take place at any date between two specified dates Quoting a forward rate Forward exchange rate might be higher or lower than the spot rate. Compute the amount a customer would get if he were to sell 2 million foreign currency.

This is because it is quoted forward at a discount. If the forward exchange rate were lower than the spot rate, then the quoted currency would be more expensive than the spot and will be said to be quoted forward at a premium. The forward rate are not quoted independently but are quoted as adjustments to the spot rate. If the forward rate of a currency is cheaper than the spot rate, then its quoted at a discount to the spot rate and the forward rate would be higher than the spot rate by the amount of the discount a discount is added to the spot rate to get the forward rate.

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Reservation of title is carried forward to the resale price. As soon as goods are delivered, risks of any nature including instances of force majeure and safeguarding of the goods are transferred to the buyer. Default on a single amount due may lead to the goods being reclaimed.

In addition, the customer shall permit the goods supplied to be recovered at any time regardless of where they are located and grants the seller the right to enter the premises occupied by the buyer. A reserves the right to take action against all customers in any other relevant jurisdictions.

Belgian law is applicable to the relationships between the parties. This software shall be used exclusively under licence by the customer for its own purposes and only internally. The customer is therefore strictly forbidden to transfer this software in any manner whatsoever to third parties, whether this be in return for payment or free of charge or to make copies of it expect in so far as this proves necessary for security reasons.

A reserves the right to rescind the contract without prior notice and to cease to provide all supplementary assistance, without prejudice to its entitlement to compensation and interest or to recover compensation and interest demanded by KAPITOL S. If the customer is a natural person, he is entitled to request without charge to inspect his data at any time and to refuse to permit their processing unless this processing is necessary to the fulfilment of the contract or arises from a legal obligation.

The customer is entitled to delete incorrect, incomplete or irrelevant data free of charge. To this end, he may submit his request: 1. A cannot be held liable for the use of these data and the customer accepts full liability and the consequences of this use in the event of any claim or complaint.

Like a bird that needs its wings to live, you cannot exist without it. Freedom is the nucleus around which your life revolves. You need it for your very survival. By using freedom properly, you are able to explore and develop all of your varied talents. You will meet many types of people and travel great distances.

You are exceedingly domestic. You love your home and family and work hard to make both comfortable and secure. Your love for family and friends is a major source of your happiness and sometimes unhappiness. Your desire to help others is so strong that you often find yourself sacrificing your own personal needs for someone else's.

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Investment Strategy: Charting the Course Through Rough Waters [14 ก.ค. 65] KKP 2022 Mid-Year Outlook

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