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The bitcoin backbone protocol analysis and applications

the bitcoin backbone protocol analysis and applications

Garay J., KiayiasN A., The bitcoin backbone protocol: Analysis and applications,” in Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of. Dr. Juan Garay, author of “The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications” – which was among CoinDesk's top 10 cryptocurrency research papers of. ​The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications​. Ouroboros: A Provably Secure Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol. Proof of Stake. PRE MASTERS BETTING ODDS

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All countries of the European Union issue national ID-cards to citizens and residents. The chip of the card stores information about its owner: full name, gender, national identification number, fingerprints, cryptographic keys, and certificates. A cardholder has the right to use the ID-card as an identity card for travel through the territory of the European Union and for crossing its external borders both for entry and exit from the countries of the European Union and the European Economic Area, including Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland.

Firstly, the chip on a smart card is a sufficiently protected microcomputer that has a microprocessor, a cryptographic coprocessor, and some memory flash or EEPROM. Unlike a standard microcontroller, access to the memory of a smart card is strictly controlled by the processor. Thus, both reading and recording of the data are regulated by the software of the card itself.

Moreover, chip manufacturers are taking measures to prevent unauthorized access copying all the memory, reprogramming to the card at electronic and physical levels. Secondly, all the data in the card is encrypted in the Estonian map, bit encryption is used.

Thirdly, the downloaded applications applets cannot be read from the card by anyone, including the cardholder an applet can only be erased and a new one should be written instead of the erased one in its place. You can only pass a command to the applet and get a response. Fourthly, you need a PIN-code for the card, and sometimes two: the first one for authorization, and the second one for confirmation of operations. However, despite all the advantages of such protection, the system is not secure from unauthorized changes of personal information from the inside for example, due to server hacking , from creation of fake digital personalities on the basis of which can be used to obtain legal documents and from sale of personal data to external interested organizations a recent example being Facebook.

Using Blockchain technology [ 6 ] can help eliminate the first two threats and increase control over the use of such information by authorized users. Blockchain is a well-known technology used in Bitcoin [ 7 , 8 , 9 ] and other cryptocurrencies [ 10 , 11 ]. Successful attempts are also being made to introduce this technology in areas of bank transfers [ 12 ], logistics [ 13 ], energy [ 14 ], IoT [ 15 , 16 ], and healthcare [ 17 ].

We consider further the advantages and disadvantages Blockchain Technology. Advantages It is a decentralized system. Since Blockchain data is often stored in thousands of devices on a distributed network of nodes, the system and the data are highly resistant to technical failures and malicious attacks. Each network node is able to replicate and store a copy of the database and, because of this, there is no single point of failure: a single node going offline does not affect the availability or security of the network [ 18 ].

The transparency. Each transaction is copied to either computer node in the Blockchain network. Every participant can look at all transactions, this also means that each action is showed to participants of the Blockchain. Nobody cannot do anything insensibly [ 19 , 20 ]. Another reason of the Blockchain security is the reliable chain of the cryptographic hash. When a new block is created, it is necessary to calculate a hash value for the new block. This hash is generated automatically by the node key.

In this case, it is impossible to change any information in the hash value [ 19 ]. Faster and cost-effective. Traditionally, the transaction takes a lot of time in processing and initialing into banking organization. The use of Blockchain technology helps to reduce the time for processing and initialing—from approximately 3 days to several minutes or even seconds [ 19 , 20 ]. Confirmed blocks are very unlikely to be reversed, meaning that once data has been registered into the Blockchain, it is extremely difficult to remove or change it.

This makes Blockchain a great technology for storing critical data where an audit trail is required because every change is tracked and permanently recorded on a distributed and public ledger [ 18 ]. Disadvantages Data modification.

Another downside of Blockchain systems is that once data has been added to the Blockchain, it is very difficult to modify or delete it. For instance, this problem may actually be to fulfill the requirements of GDPR to use the right to oblivion.

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Foundational Aspects of Blockchain Protocols (Lecture 1) by Juan Garay

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