Investing guide for beginners pdf viewer
Learn how to invest with the right investing book for beginners. to the author's daughter but grew into a comprehensive financial guide. Beginners' Guide to Investing: Online Publications at the SEC. Office of Investor Education and Advocacy. Investors-Educate Yourself. Get the. CHAPTER 5: Stock Investing through Exchange-Traded Funds. followed the guidelines from previous editions of this book did much better than the crowd!). DIRECT WRITE OFF METHOD INVESTOPEDIA FOREX
History has proven that investing in stocks has been one of the most effective and efficient way for individuals to build wealth and raise their passive income. Investing in stock is complex. Hence, stocks are still misunderstood by some people. There are factors that must be taken into consideration before investing in stocks such as the company where to invest and what type of stocks to buy.
Thus, stocks usually have two types: the common stock and the preferred stock. When people talk about stocks, they are generally referring to the common stock. In fact, great majority of sock is issued in this form. It represents a claim on profits dividends and confers voting rights. Also, they are given a guaranteed fixed dividend unlike with the common stocks which give variable dividends that varies along the profits or earnings of the corporation for a period.
Investing is risky. You need to enrich your investment strategy and be tactical in order to maintain your investment and attain your desired goals. Those who own stock are commonly called stockholders or shareholders. As a shareholder, an investor theoretically owns a percentage of everything the company owns or owes.
It is issued by companies to raise capital in order to grow the business or undertake new projects. The stock also capital stock of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners. A single share of the stock represents fractional ownership of the corporation in proportion to the total number of shares.
The stock of a corporation is partitioned into shares, the total of which are stated at the time of business formation. Additional shares may be authorized by the existing shareholders and issued by the company. In some jurisdictions, each share of stock has a certain declared par value, which is a nominal accounting value used to represent the equity on the balance sheet of the corporation. In other jurisdictions, however, shares of stock may be issued without associated par value. Classes of Shares A business may declare different types or classes of shares, each having distinctive ownership rules, privileges, or share values.
Ownership of shares may be documented by issuance of a stock certificate. Typically, stock takes the form of shares of either common stock or preferred stock. The distinction between the two will be discussed as follows: 1. These are the stocks to which everyone is usually referring when they use the term in the context of portfolio management or the world of investing.
In modern times, common stock is virtually always issued as "fully paid and non-assessable", which means once you have acquired it, you can't be forced to come up with any more money, though that wasn't always the case. Preferred Stock — generally does not have voting rights, but has a higher claim on assets and earnings than the common shares and is legally entitled to receive a certain level of dividend payments before any dividends can be issued to other shareholders.
For example, owners of preferred stock receive dividends before common shareholders and have priority in the event that a company goes bankrupt and is liquidated. Aside from those two classes of shares stated above that are of common nature and both frequently used in investing in the stock market as the major classes of shares of stock, there are still some categories or classifications of shares of stock that one should be knowledgeable in order to have a background and idea of what investing really means.
Based on Ownership Rights This is the most basic parameter for classifying stocks. In this case, the issuing company decides whether it will issue common, preferred or hybrid stocks. There are two different types of stock that investors can own. They have different ownership rights and different privileges. Common Stock Common stock is as it sounds, common.
When people talk about stocks they are usually referring to common stock, and the great majority of stock is issued is in this form. Investors can also vote to elect the board members who oversee the major decisions made by management. Historically, common stock has yielded higher returns than almost all other common investment classes. In addition to the highest returns, common stock probably also carries the highest risk. If a company goes bankrupt, the common shareholders will not receive money until the creditors, bondholders and preferred shareholders are paid.
This risk can be greatly reduced by owning many different well established companies diversification that have solid financial statements and a history of strong earnings. With preferred shares, investors are usually guaranteed a fixed dividend. Recall that this is different than common stock, which has variable dividend payments that fluctuate with company profits. One advantage of preferred stock is that in the event of bankruptcy, preferred shareholders are paid off before the common shareholder but still after debt holders.
I like to think of preferred stock as being somewhere in between bonds and common stock. It shares similarities with both. Based on Company Specifics Each company has a unique plan for growth and dividend distributions which is reflected in these stock classifications. Blue-Chip Stocks Blue-chip stocks are stocks of the biggest companies in the country. These are usually high quality companies with years of strong profits and steady dividend payments.
They are also some of the safest stocks to invest in. This usually results in steady stock prices, but less upside for investors. As a result, historical returns for very large companies have trailed the returns of smaller companies. They are stable companies that pay large dividends. When you combine the dividend payments with the appreciation in stock price, these stocks often provide retirees with more money than they can earn by investing in bonds or other fixed income investments.
Of course, this comes with higher risk that the stock price will fall in a market downturn. Value Stocks Value stocks are the stocks of companies that usually have one or more of the following: o Low price-to-earnings ratios o Low price-to-book ratios o Low price-to-dividend ratios o Low price-to-sales-and-cash-flow ratios 6 In other words, they are underpriced when compare to other similar companies in the market.
Sometimes this is a result of distress or financial problems. Other times, it may be due to investor behavior and cyclical trends. Growth Stocks Growth stocks are stocks of companies with profits that are increasing quickly. These companies often reinvest the profits and pay little to no dividends to stock owners. In doing so, they hope that the growth in stock price is enough to keep stockholders on board.
Growth companies are often technology centered, and usually either sell a product or focus on research and design. Most of these companies experience rapid growth. Growth stocks can rise in value quickly, but they often fall even quicker. Based on size Market capitalization market cap is simply a way of referring to the size of a company in a manner that allows you to compare companies in different industries. You compute market cap by multiplying the number of outstanding shares by the current stock price.
Investors often talk about investing is small, mid, or large cap mutual funds. This means that the mutual fund only invests in companies of a certain size. There is a strongly correlation here between risk and return. Without capitalism and well-functioning capital markets, most of the modern comforts you take for granted wouldn't exist or be available to you. Thus, they want to gain earnings without further efforts such as managing the business, being employed in a manufacturing company, working in a firm with lots of tasks to do and so on.
In line with this, they are attracted to the existence of the stock market in the Philippines. A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity of stocks also called shares , which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
Some exchanges are physical locations where transactions are carried out on a trading floor, but increasingly the stock exchanges are virtual, composed of networks of computers where trades are made and recorded electronically. These are secondary markets, where existing owners of shares can transact with potential buyers.
So, when you buy a share of stock in a stock market, you are definitely not buying it from the company, but from some other existing shareholders. In the same manner, when you sell your shares, you do not sell them directly to the company, but to some other investors interested with your shares. Such examples include shares of private companies which are sold to investors through equity crowdfunding platforms. Stock exchanges list shares of common equity as well as other security types, e.
Nowadays, stock markets have become the driving economic force in a country. For example, it was found out that France had a system where couriers managed agricultural debts throughout the country on behalf of banks. This can be seen as the first major example of brokerage because the men effectively traded debts. Soon after, bankers in the nearby Italian cities of Pisa, Verona, Genoa and Florence also began trading government securities. Coffee Shops: First Real Stock Markets Before investors yelled across trade floors and threw order forms into the air, they conducted business in coffee shops.
Early stocks were handwritten on sheets of paper and investors traded these stocks with other investors in coffee shops. As the volume of shares that has been traded increased, the need for an organized marketplace to exchange these shares became necessary. As a result, stock traders decided to meet at a London coffeehouse, which they used as a marketplace. Eventually, they took over the coffeehouse and, in , changed its name to the "stock exchange. The idea made its way to the American colonies with an exchange started in Philadelphia in In other words, coffee shops were the first real stock markets due to the fact that investors would visit these markets to buy and sell stocks.
However, its 11 purpose was solely for governmental purposes and for arranging debts of the country to some other countries. In other words, stocks are left unknown until The Philadelphia Stock Exchange holds that title. But, NYSE became the most powerful stock exchange in the country due to the lack of any type of domestic competition and its positioning at the center of U. S trade and economics in the New York. Modern Stock Markets Nowadays, every country has its own stock market.
Every day, trillions of dollars are traded on stock markets around the world and they are truly the engine of the capitalist world. It is the national exchange of the Philippines. It was created in from the merger of Manila Stock Exchange established on August 12, and the Makati Stock Exchange established on May 15, Including previous forms, it has been in operation since Here are the top 10 stock markets in the world today ranked by market capitalization: 1. New York Stock Exchange 2.
Tokyo Stock Exchange 4. London Stock Exchange Group 5. Euronext 6. Hong Kong Stock Exchange 7. Shanghai Stock Exchange 8. Toronto Stock Exchange 9. Frankfurt Stock Exchange PSE is the national stock exchange of the Philippines. It has been created in December 23, , with 24 years of existence since the two exchanges Manila Stock Exchange and Makati Stock Exchange was merged.
However, it has been in operation since , with 90 years of operating years. In , the PSE was transformed from a non-profit, non-stock, member- governed organization into a shareholder-based, revenue-earning corporation headed by a president and a board of directors. In December 15, , it has listed its own shares on the exchange and traded under the ticker symbol PSE. Choose your stockbroker.
At present, there are more than a hundred stockbrokerage companies to choose from. When you choose a stockbroker, you need to consider the type of service you will require and who will best suit your needs. You should remember that your stockbroker is your financial agent that will help you make your invested money grow. Online Brokers The online brokers compete with the traditional brokers. The online brokers offer lower costs, increased speed and a better guarantee of transparency and anonymity.
The only real advantage of traditional brokers is the gathering of information. In online brokers, the time needed for traders to react to new information is reduced. Traditional brokers are those who assign a licensed salesman to handle your account and take your orders via written instruction or through a phone call.
Online brokers, on the other hand, are those whose main interface with their customer is through the Internet. Figure 2 shows an online poll, conducted and closed on February 06, at exactly am, which aims to know and identify which between traditional broker and online broker is at of the preference of the investors.
Figure 2. Online Poll — Traditional broker vs. Online broker The figure shows the preferences of the investors of whom between the two types of brokers traditional vs online is more convenient to use and is more helpful. Buying Stocks Using Licensed Brokerage Firm Individuals typically buy and sell shares through a licensed brokerage firm or broker who makes the actual trade. Historically, stockbrokers were hired only by wealthy individuals and families, but today a wide range of brokerages exist for all price ranges.
However, there are clients who look for a brokerage firm that would give them some services with respect to their budgets. In line with this, there are some brokerages that offer and asking as low as Php5, Reliable data on leading companies can significantly streamline your stock-buying homework, and many top brokers offer it. The best brokers offer real-time assistance through multiple channels, including by phone, email or chat.
Broker-produced guides and tutorials can help beginners get up to speed on the stock-buying process much more quickly. Abacus Securities www. COL Financial www. DA Market itrade. Yap Securities, www. First Metro Securities Brokerage www. Philstocks Financial, Inc. Unicapital Securities, www. Wealth Securities, www. Table 1. List of Some of the Brokers in the Philippines The table shows the list of some of the brokers in the Philippines which are accredited online brokers in the Philippines and the amount they require.
Thus, the following are the discussions of each online brokers: 17 a. AB Capital Securities, Inc. Abacus Securities Corporation Ranked among the top ten stockbrokerage houses in the country. The Company is renowned for four things, namely: stability, expertise, professionalism and customer care.
Abacus aims to become one of the leading and the choice brokerage company in the Philippines, as it is committed to provide impeccable service and value to its clients. AP Securities Inc. The company is one of the leading stock brokerages in the country as it has consistently ranked among the top brokers in terms of turnover since its inception.
Guided by its mission to increase the number of Filipinos investing in the Philippine stock market, APS offered online brokerage services to widen its reach and increase the accessibility of its services to Filipinos around the world. The business also aims to provide stock brokerage services to institutional clients overseas and to eventually provide a platform to connect Filipino investors to the international stock markets.
Coherco Securities, Inc. It is backed with the full strength and resources of a family-owned business conglomerate with interests in manufacturing, distribution, retail, real estate, and financial services. Throughout the past 14 years Coherco has quietly established itself as a competent and reliable broker-dealer with an outstanding regulatory record. COL is the fastest growing online stockbroker in the country today with over , customers and Php55 billion in customer assets established in DA Market Securities, Inc.
A top equities brokerage with an affiliate in banking and financing in operation mostly in Central Luzon. We continue to service clients and corporations through the bulls and bears of the Philippine capital market. Yap Securities, Inc. Yapster e-Trade, Inc. We were granted pioneer status by the Board of Investments on February as the first in the Philippines to provide a complete solution that integrates trading, financial planning and portfolio management capabilities online.
By offering exceptional execution capabilities and providing excellent research with timely calls and recommendations to clients, Maybank ATR Kim Eng Securities, Inc. It has kept its list of long-term clients through achieving a balance between financial know-how and commitment to quality. Unicapital Securities, Inc. Since its inception in , USI has successfully established itself as an active player in the trading of equity securities. Wealth Securities, Inc.
Ranked among the top 20 brokerages in the Philippines since its incorporation in November Wealth caters to both retail and institutional clients in the Philippines and overseas. With over 25 years of experience in equity securities, its research team is often quoted in local newspapers and journals for their stock picks and coverage of mid-to-large cap stocks.
Activate and fund your brokerage account. Buy and sell stocks using your brokerage account. Regardless of the type of brokerage used, the mechanics of buying or selling shares is fairly uniform. First, a stock quote is obtained. In the early days of stock exchanges, price information was transmitted via tickertape — a long ribbon of paper that printed basic data via telegraph wire. That is why today we still refer to stock quotes as the ticker.
A stock quote carries a lot of information including the current bid and offer prices as well as the last price that traded. The bid is the highest price that somebody in the market is willing to pay at a given time, while the offer is the lowest price that somebody is willing to sell. If you are interested in buying shares, you will make a bid, and if you want to sell an offer. When the price of a bid and offer coincide, a trade is affected.
Stock quotes obtained online are often real-time quotes that confer second- by-second details, and online quotes also often include charts and interactive tools. With this regard, the investors must be knowledgeable in interpreting the stock movements of a company that they acquired in order to manage the investments and to properly handle their investments with their own capacity, ability and comprehension. This typically does not include the previous day's trading.
If there are no special symbols or letters following the name, it is common stock. Different symbols imply different classes of shares. For example, "pf" means the shares are preferred stock. Column 4: Ticker Symbol - This is the unique alphabetic name which identifies the stock. If you watch financial TV, you have seen the ticker tape move across the screen, quoting the latest prices alongside this symbol.
If you are looking for stock quotes online, you always search for a company by the ticker symbol. Column 5: Dividend Per Share - This indicates the annual dividend payment per share. If this space is blank, the company does not currently pay out dividends. Column 6: Dividend Yield - The percentage return on the dividend. Calculated as annual dividends per share divided by price per share.
Column 8: Trading Volume - This figure shows the total number of shares traded for the day, listed in hundreds. To get the actual number traded, add "00" to the end of the number listed. In other words, these are the maximum and the minimum prices that people have paid for the stock.
Keep in mind, you are not guaranteed to get this price if you buy the stock the next day because the price is constantly changing even after the exchange is closed for the day. The close is merely an indicator of past performance and except in extreme circumstances serves as a ballpark of what you should expect to pay.
Column Net Change - This is the dollar value change in the stock price from the previous day's closing price. When you hear about a stock being "up for the day," it means the net change was positive. For example, if ABC Corporation is valued at P1,, and it has , shares outstanding, the price of each share is P A company has stuff and sells stuff. The stuff it has are buildings, machineries, patents, money in the bank, etc.
One of the primary benefits of investing in the stock market is the chance to grow your money. Over time, the stock market tends to rise in value, though the prices of individual stocks rise in value, though the prices of individual stocks rise and fall daily. Investments in stable companies that are able grow tend to make profits for investors. Stock ownership takes advantage of a growing economy.
As the economy grows, so do corporate earnings. That's because economic growth creates income. The fatter paycheck boosts consumer demand, which drives more revenues into companies' cash registers. It helps if you understand the phases of the business cycle. Historically, stocks have averaged an annual return of 10 percent. That's better than the average annual inflation rate of 3.
It does mean you must have a longer time horizon. That way, you can buy and hold even if the value temporarily drops. Compare stocks, inflation, and gold prices in Gold Price History. Easy to buy. The stock market makes it easy to buy shares of companies. You can purchase them through a broker, a financial planner, or online.
Once you've set up an account, you can buy stocks in minutes. For more, see How to Invest in Stocks. You make money in two ways. Most investors intend to buy low and then sell high. They invest in fast-growing companies that appreciate in value. That's attractive to both day traders and buy-and-hold investors. The first group hope to take advantage of short-term trends, while the latter expect to see the company's earnings and stock price grow over time. They both believe their stock-picking skills allow them to outperform the market.
Other investors prefer a regular stream of cash. They purchase stocks of companies that pay dividends. Those companies grow at a moderate rate. They are easy to sell. The stock market allows you to sell your stock at any time. That's important if you suddenly need your cash in a hurry.
Since prices are volatile, you run the risk of being forced to take a loss. If a company does poorly, investors will sell, sending the stock price plummeting. When you sell, you will lose your initial investment. If you can't afford to lose your initial investment, then you should buy bonds. You get an income tax break if you lose money on your stock loss. Unfortunately, you also have to pay taxes if you make money. See Capital Gains Tax.
Preferred stockholders and bondholders get paid first. It requires a lot of time. You've got to research each and every company to determine how profitable you think it will be before you buy stock. You've got to learn how to read financial statements and annual reports, and follow your company's developments in the news. You've also got to monitor the stock market itself, as even the best company's price will fall in a market correction, a market crash or bear market.
Buy on Amazon Buy on Barnesandnoble. Enter John C. Keep in mind, a mutual fund is an investment vehicle through which investors pool their money to invest in securities, usually stocks or bonds. The updated version covers topics from the basics of mutual fund investing to regulatory changes to how to build an investment portfolio with staying power. It provides an explainer of all major investment vehicles, from stocks and bonds to real estate investment trusts and tangible assets.
The updated edition includes a new chapter focusing on behavioral finance, or how our emotions affect our financial behavior and investment strategies. These systems affect everything from where we choose to vacation to even how we invest in the stock market.
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